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Asian Voices. HuffPost Personal. Special Projects. Various realistic mission profiles will be used during testing. Environmental tests will be executed. Additional validation to be performed at an Army facility to corroborate evidence of performance goals. Commercial Application: Law enforcement, Homeland Security, and emergency service Unmanned Air Systems performing intelligence, surveillance, search and rescue, and disaster relief missions. Traditional manufacturing methods have been refined over time to achieve high reliability such as casting processes used for gearbox housings or machining used for mounts, fittings, and pitch-link horns.
Recent progress with use of Additive Manufacturing AM , especially powder bed fusion processes, has demonstrated manufacture of complex components as a single part, which may save manufacturing labor, cost, and reduce production time. The application of optimized topology in design of parts can have the added benefit of weight savings unfeasible using traditional manufacturing processes. In order for additive manufacturing to transition to widespread use in aerospace, the AM processes must be repeatable and reliable to meet aerospace qualification standards.
There are several challenges with AM processes that limit the use for manufacturing. Residual stresses can be high in AM parts, which limit the loading of parts. Optimization strategies must be developed as part of the effort. Density of the material throughout the part can be inconsistent. Density can be influenced by un-melted entrapped powders. Overcoming this challenge needs to be addressed as part of the effort. The rapid cooling rates associated with AM processes can affect the microstructure of the base material resulting in variations in desired strength, ductility, toughness, and modulus.
The new AM process control system must mitigate the effects to material properties. Geometry and surface finish of parts can be inconsistent from part to part. The relationship between AM process parameters and part quality have been studied and reported . Temperature can affect residual stresses, material microstructure, and geometry. Many of the process parameters such as temperature and laser speed, can be controlled. In-situ sensors can provide information such as melt pool temperatures, layer thickness, laser power, and laser track.
Methods are needed for in-process monitoring and closed-loop feedback for AM processes to improve repeatability for geometric dimensions, material properties, and quality. The methods need to monitor and control the AM process parameters, identify flaw areas, and provide feedback to AM equipment during the build of each layer. It is also desired that any flaws, such as un-melted powder or voids, be corrected by the AM equipment prior to building the subsequent layers.
The closed-loop feedback methods must integrate with AM equipment computer controls. Technologies should enable determination of the boundaries of the molten pool within 0. The demonstration of the technology should be the manufacturing of an Army helicopter gearbox e. Efforts should show that the sensors can meet the demands of the AM process environment and provide feedback to the computer control system. Demonstrate the improved AM processes by manufacturing several sets of coupons and testing them for yield strength, ultimate strength, fatigue strength, hardness testing, etc.
Test the system on AM metallic powders. Compare coupon performance to baseline properties using other AM and traditional processes.
Manufacture at least two full-size gearboxes for testing to demonstrate the technology in a relevant part. Demonstrate the AM process for actual aircraft components. National Institute of Standards and Technology. European Space Agency. Aluminum Alloy Castings 7. October Sensing, modeling and control for laser-based additive manufacturing, International Journal of Machine Tools and Manufacture.
Volume 43, Issue 1, January , Pages Because continuous-fiber composites allow a material to have great strength in the fiber direction, designers are able to tailor plies to create laminates that have strength in the direction where it is needed. The resulting composite systems, with fiber supported in polymer matrix, have high strength-to-weight efficiency. Current aerospace composite components are often joined using mechanical fasteners, which add weight, increase stress, and essentially damage the component. The drilled fastener holes act as static stress raisers. Structural composites are known to be static notch sensitive due to drilled holes, as opposed to the fatigue notch sensitivity of aluminum.
Holes in composite can lead to additional ply build-up to ensure a slow crack growth failure mechanism by greatly surpassing static loads requirements. Minimizing mechanical fasteners in composite structures can reduce weight, manufacturing complexity, and assembly labor. Advancement in composite joining methods is needed. Adhesive bonds are already inherent to composite materials at the laminate level where plies are bonded. Joining composite structure through bonding could minimize or completely replace mechanical fastening methods; however, there currently exists no way to validate the integrity of the bond.
To realize aircraft design of primary structure using adhesive bonding, the structural integrity must be ensured throughout the service life. The Army desires an inspection technique capable of detecting any degradation of bondline strength due to combined loading and environmental effects such as temperature and moisture.
Previous efforts of Hennige and Cribbs have explored ultrasonic inspection methods which generate pulse amplitudes that produce strains just below the accepted bond strength. A drawback of this approach is the destructive effect on strength degraded bonds. A truly non-destructive solution is sought which will not degrade the load carrying ability of structure.
Possible directions for solutions that can achieve the desired state may include in-situ monitoring methods which have potential for manufacturability, light weight, and reliability. Another avenue for a solution may be a rapid inspection technique to be used with existing maintenance inspections, while remaining cognizant of life-cycle cost associated with the tradeoffs in maintenance and benefits from bondline design. Solutions should be consistent with the Armys desired maintenance free operating period concept and have enough fidelity to ensure bond integrity, and ultimately structural integrity, between inspections.
This phase should determine limitations of material system, limitations to joint types, limitations for size resolution, limitations to geometric configuration, and precision tolerances of fracture energy for proposed bondline inspection method. At the end of Phase I the Offeror shall perform proof-of-concept testing to show that system can non-destructively inspect a bondline for meeting the minimum threshold for strength.
This phase should test a variety of materials and joint configurations with good and poor quality bonding to build confidence in the inspection method as a universal solution. Verify detection of any degradation of bondline strength due to environmental effects. Provide analytical and experimental verification that inspection technique has sufficient fidelity probability of detection and confidence to ensure structural integrity of bondline between inspection periods. This phase should develop a prototype device as a deliverable.
A successful Phase II will provide evidence that the technology is promising for both use in field applications and in manufacturing quality assurance. A business case analysis should be conducted. Single or multiple product development will include design of user-interface and software verification and validation.
Fully characterize the inspection reliability, including probability of detection and confidence interval. Long-life is defined as a minimum of three years of useful life and an objective of five years of useful life; shelf-stable refers to the ability to remain viable in diverse environments. Currently fielded composite repair materials have limited life and shelf stability; six to eighteen months is the useful life of currently fielded composite repair technology, dependent on storage conditions. While this composite repair technique proved functional in a laboratory setting, the materials are neither long-life nor shelf-stable.
Limited life and shelf stability negatively impact operational availability and maintenance costs; wet layup laminating resins and paste adhesives which are both long-life and shelf-stable are desired. Proof of concept testing shall be performed to demonstrate the strength, stiffness, and weight efficiency of the wet layup laminating resin and paste adhesive when compared to currently fielded resins and paste adhesives. Additionally, environmental testing, such as testing defined in MIL-STDG, shall be performed to verify long-life and shelf-stability of the wet layup laminating resin and paste adhesive.
Required deliverables for this phase shall be a project management plan, progress reports, and a final report. The final report shall document the scientific methodology underlying the concept, anticipated benefits, and lessons learned. Additionally, the final report shall include a cost analysis of the developed technology solution compared to currently fielded resins and paste adhesives.
The composite repair methodology and procedure shall be documented such that independent verification and validation by a third party can be accomplished.
Other required deliverables for this phase shall be a project management plan, progress reports, test plans, composite repair samples for independent testing, and a final report. The final report shall document the Phase 2 effort in detail, lessons learned, and the future plan for commercializing the developed technology solution. Consideration shall be given to improving manufacturing readiness level, generation of material allowables through testing, and generation of bonded joint analysis methodology. The vision for long-life, shelf-stable, wet layup laminating resins and paste adhesives is to address the issue of rapidly expiring composite repair materials while enabling fielded composite repairs in diverse environments.
Bonded Repair Technology for Aging Aircraft. Develop a software tool that will check instrumentation data collected from an integrated mission system to see if the observed system behaviors of an integrated mission system conforms to required and allowed behaviors defined in an Architectural Analysis and Design Language AADL model of the integrated aviation software and hardware mission system.
System integration testing currently depends largely on tests that are manually created from structured natural language specifications augmented with engineering annotations and diagrams. Confirming that the test results are correct is also a manually-intensive and error-prone process. A variety of existing analyses can be used verify and validate these aviation mission system models during the early development phase. However, methods and supporting tools are needed to provide assurance that as-built integrated aviation mission systems comply with their requirements specified in an architecture-level model.
Note that it is expected that future mission system requirements can and will be captured in architectural models. Model-based testing of a physical instance of an integrated aviation mission system referred to as the System Under Test or SUT are tests that are done on the SUT to see if it conforms to its specification model. Model-based testing of integrated aviation mission systems poses some difficult challenges. Controllability and observability of such systems may be limited. An example is model-based checking of flight test data of the realized system, where the available data is limited by the capabilities of onboard instrumentation, and the test inputs are outside the control of the model-based testing tools.
A primary goal of this effort is a tool that checks to see if available observation data conforms to behaviors required and allowed by the specification model. The supplied capability should not be limited to tests generated only by the supplied tools, the tools should be usable with existing test suites i. The goal is not a new controllability or instrumentation capability; solutions should adapt to existing test execution and instrumentation capabilities with minimal intrusiveness and effort.
Proposers should define metrics to be used to determine tool coverage and thoroughness as part of their proposal e. The tool should minimize the assumptions and requirements placed on the instrumentation in the SUT so that it can be used with a variety of instrumentation and testbed capabilities. At the architectural level, many defects are due to inconsistencies between the protocols used by different components that interact with each other.
Many defects are due to incorrect coordination of system modes such as start-up, recovery, or operating modes. The tool should check for protocol inconsistencies, mis-coordination of system modes of operation, and timing defects. Instrumentation data is collected at multiple different points in an aviation mission system. The content and format used for instrumentation data and the degree to which causality and temporal relationships are captured or can be inferred may vary.
Some events of interest may not be captured e. The tool should be adaptable to handle variability in the available instrumentation data such as with word formats and sampling rates. The tool should provide features to manage large amounts of instrumentation data collected from a large and complex system. Assess scalability to very large data sets for large and complex models and systems. Assess the likelihood of false positive and false negative results and evaluate tool capabilities to deal with these cases.
Performers are expected to provide example models and instrumentation data for the Phase I demonstration. These would include verifying properties of the integrated system related to safety and security. Demonstrate and evaluate the tool using data collected from an instrumented distributed real-time system e. Implement features that allow the tool to be adapted to a range of SUTs and a variety of instrumentation formats and capabilities. Optimize relative to a proposed set of performance, usability, etc. Success for phase II will include ensuring that scalability can be achieved.
Test will be conducted using data sets and models that are representative of large and complex aviation mission systems to prove scalability. Also, the tools will be evaluated against a government defined set of quality metrics. Commercial application: A similar tool would benefit commercial vehicles such as civil aviation and automotive.
Success will include transitioning to a product of use to industry and government. Wiener, Jeffrey C. Mogul, Mehul A. Given an architecture description language model specified in the SAE AS Architecture Analysis and Design Language AADL of a mission system and an overall federation of simulations, provide a suite of tools to analyze that model to assure important quality metrics such as performance, timing, latency, safety, security and interface compatibility and automatically generate the configuration data needed to assemble and execute the overall federated simulation.
The tool suite should provide a capability that allows collaborating organizations to assemble and test fly aviation mission systems in various configurations and stages of development in simulated aviation mission scenarios. There are increasing demands to create a larger variety of configurations quickly, for example for equipment evaluation and training exercises.
Strict requirements e. However, it is a challenge to integrate a mixture of live equipment and simulations with these protocols. What is needed is a model-based approach to specify, integrate, and verify heterogeneous SIL and SoS simulations that include aviation mission systems during the early development and evaluation phases.
Creating this capability requires a selection and extension of existing tools together with some new model based tool development. The generated federated behavior configuration should include runtime communication characteristics of each federated component, such as messaging frequencies and latencies, inter-federate dependencies, messaging paradigm s , and processing rates and latencies. This capability will reduce the cost of system integration testing in a SIL or distributed simulation environment by reducing operator and participant downtime during configuration.
This capability will increase the validation of early equipment prototypes using simulated use cases and increase the availability of tailored aviation training simulations by making such SoS federations more affordable. AADL is an industry standard means for describing the components of a real-time system and how they are integrated to form an overall system, which is applicable to the defense market and beyond. The tools developed on this effort should be compatible with existing AADL analysis tools such as security, timing, and interface consistency to provide assurance that the configured system will behave as defined in the architectural specification.
For example, by leveraging security analyses of the AADL model with automated configuration and verification, it should be possible to demonstrate that the overall simulation satisfies the security requirements for specific exercises.
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Success for phase I will include demonstration of the generation of configuration for the simulation and verification of the specification of that simulation against the architecture model defined in AADL. Success will include the development and demonstration of a workflow that generates a configuration from AADL, exercises it using a federated simulation framework, and verifies requirements stated in an AADL model of the architecture for the simulated system.
Medical Device manufacturers are also starting to use AADL to describe their systems, which also have a mix of hard and soft real-time requirements and for which there is demand for early-phase pre-clinical-trial evaluation using simulations. Efficiency and power density should be high without compromising any transient responses due to fluctuations in the source, load, or environment.
Technologies are being addressed at all fronts - from material to component, converter, control, system architecture, and integration technology - to constantly improve the performance of the power-electronic systems. Progress being made in the design and development of tunable components utilizing magneto-electric materials with low loss and wide bandwidth indicates a potential for dramatic improvements in the efficiency and further reduction in the size of components, especially in field tunable inductors and transformers.
The observation that higher switching frequency would lead to smaller and lighter systems has driven technological advances in power materials and components. The core loss of the new materials needs to be at least about eleven times lower than that of 4F1 , one of the better magnetic materials NiZn currently being utilized. Winding loss also needs to be scaled proportionately, and heat needs to be distributed efficiently. Therefore, magnetic geometries that can be optimized to achieve low winding loss and uniform heat distribution are sought .
The choice of inductance affects the shapes of currents throughout the converter and, hence, converter losses. There is an optimal profile of inductance versus load current that minimizes system loss, resulting in less weight imposed by heat sinks and batteries. Such profile can be realized if the non-textured magnetization  in the core of a conventional inductor is replaced by a textured magnetization.
Profiles of inductance versus input voltage or switching frequency can also be synthesized to maximize the efficiency.
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Tunability of textured magnetization offers another degree of freedom for this optimization. Texturing implies orientation of the grains along the specific crystallographic axis ,. Textured tunable inductors and transformers can substantially improve the efficiency of the power conversion circuits and result in high density integration. This technology along with creative engineering approaches will lead to the development of a new class of battlefield electronics pushing the limits of size and weight.
Identify magnetic geometries amenable to the synthesis of the required inductance profile, and develop methodologies for texturing and tuning the core materials to achieve the desired magnetization profile versus load, input, or frequency variations. Identify key requirements for validating the tunable components, and address performance trade-offs, limitations and compatibility issues. Required Phase I deliverables will include all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing. Demonstrate textured material manufacturing capability e.
Perform comparative analysis of the new power converter architecture with respect to the traditional designs in terms of efficiency, weight and size. Required Phase II deliverables will include textured and tunable inductors and transformers, and a working prototype of the power converter for independent evaluation by Army, all records, documents, and data resulting from the design, fabrication, and testing.
Provide complete engineering and test documentation for the development of manufacturing prototypes. Explore the utilization of this technology not only for the efficiency of power electronics converters, but also for the development of other new power processing methodologies for weapon systems. Phase III application for army missile systems could include miniaturization of electronics in legacy programs as well as incorporation into emerging programs. Lee and Q. Ramachandran, M. Nymand and N. Reusch and J. Power Electron. Cui, K. Ngo, J. Moss, M. Lim and E.
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Saito, H. Takao, T. Tani, T. Nonoyama, K. Takatori, T. Homma, T. Nagaya, and M. Nakamura, "Lead-free piezoceramics," in Nature, vol. Ma, J. Hu, Z. Li, and C. Nan, "Recent progress in multiferroic magnetoelectric composites: from bulk to thin films," in Adv. The precision required to provide the necessary lethality against these threats leads to interceptors using increasingly sophisticated acquisition sensors, seekers and fire control technology. The increasing technological sophistication rapidly drives increased interceptor cost.
The key is to control interceptor cost by developing affordable, alternative nonconventional robust engagement capabilities. These alternative concepts include, but may not be limited to, leader-follower guided missiles, collaborative or cooperative guided missile engagements with multiple interceptors, learning algorithms for guidance of multiple missile interceptors, and optimization of multiple guided missiles for distributed lethality.
These advanced guidance techniques are especially useful for multiple reasons. These include, but are not limited to, conditions: 1. The use of analysis and simulation needs to be applied to illustrate and quantify performance of proposed approaches. A budget of error sources that impact miss distance must be developed and performance of a sensitivity analysis to assess critical sources of error shall be conducted.
It is important to address other performance issues that are unique to the architecture. The conceptual architecture must be supported by research efforts to verify that it is superior to alternative concepts. The conceptual architecture must be composed of functional elements or subsystems defined by their input, function and output. Examples of functions, elements or subsystems may include, but not be limited to, surveillance, target acquisition, target tracking, sensor-to-interceptors communication, interceptor-to-interceptor communication, engagement algorithms, and interceptor guidance to support mission objectives.
Completion of Phase I shall result in the definition of alternative concepts and selection of best concepts based on cost-benefit metrics. A sufficiently detailed system simulation shall quantify the performance of the architecture to optimize engagement with affordable, robust engagement algorithms. Completion of Phase II shall result in a definition of multiple interceptor engagement algorithms, quantification of the engagement concept with a detailed system simulation and a plan for transition to a full-scale missile flight demonstration.
Alternative robust guidance concepts emerging from this SBIR effort can be transitioned to integration contractors for flight test and demonstration. Even during missile tests where the launch window is flexible, launch under clear sky conditions is not always possible. During engagement, the choice of environmental conditions is even more limited. The problem is further exacerbated in ballistic missile defense BMD where response to threats must be swift regardless of environmental conditions.
A lack of understanding of the effects of weather on BMD assets translates to a lack of operational response capability. The purpose of this effort is to identify the process for end-to-end BMD mission planning and engagement response in adverse weather conditions. Part of the current gap in state of the art weather-capable technologies is in assessing and predicting real-time environmental conditions in theater. While satellite data is globally available, spatial and temporal resolutions may not be appropriate for short range systems.
Conversely, in forward operating areas, high resolution weather data from weather radars may not be readily available. This topic seeks solutions for the acquisition of appropriate, fieldable weather data sources of character appropriate for BMD systems. To predict system weather vulnerability, weather information will be required at future times. Modern physics-based forecasting requires specialization in skill and resources, and is not practical in forward operating areas.
This topic seeks pragmatic, validated forecasting solutions that will run in resource constrained environments.
Ballistic missile defense strives for the earliest possible intercept requiring systems to go faster and farther . Increased speed and prolonged time in precipitation environments increases risk to the system hardware and, hence, the mission. The problem is largely a materials issue where the combination of aeroheating, aerodynamics forces, and impact of atmospheric particulates removes material from radomes and control surfaces . The resulting effect is a reduction on sensor and flight stability performance.
As flight speeds increase beyond the capability of ground testing facilities, modeling and simulation is required to fully understand the performance effects of realistic flight conditions and fill the gap between ground data and flight test data . The work in this SBIR effort should identify a modeling and simulation solution resulting in a weather vulnerability assessment model appropriate for BMD systems in an operational setting. Phase I should identify a process for validating the vulnerability models. Proposed solutions to the BMD weather vulnerability assessment process should consider the end user and how the final product will be used.
The Phase II effort should conclude with an Army relevant demonstration showing mission planning and engagement scenarios such as weapon place placement, asset selection, optimal intercept path, and probability of kill prediction. Identify the process for computing the effects in an operational setting, and how outputs will be used in tactical mission planning. Develop a plan for implementing the approach in Phase II. The expected outcome of the Phase II effort is a prototype demonstrating the tools and technologies required for weather vulnerability assessment in tactical mission planning.
Validation should be performed where possible and feasible under the Phase II. Where validation is not performed, define the requirements and develop a plan for validating the technology in a Phase III. Environmental characterization may extend beyond precipitation to atmospheric sand and dust conditions as well.
Harris, Daniel C. Fetterhoff, T. Canberra, Australia. Tattleman, P, and D. Currently, shaped charge SC and explosively formed penetrator EFP warheads possess a much higher penetration capability but a narrow spray angle. Both SC and EFP are explosive charges shaped to focus the effect of the explosives energy with SC having more penetration but limited standoff distance and EFP characterized by less penetration but much more standoff distance. To be effective, the key is to get the right combination of penetration and spray angle. Limited experimentation was performed using two liners: the first made of copper material and the second made of zirconium.
Overall, these tests showed that the prove-out concept worked. Modeling and simulation of the shaped charge liners indicated that a variety of warhead performance variables associated with these charges can be controlled through the use of multiple materials, reactive materials, an ultrafine microstructure, or an axial or transverse gradient design.
In the case of shaped charges, research has shown that jet stability, jet velocity tip and tail , jet cross-sectional shape, and other variables can be optimized by selectively using different materials for the different regions of the warhead. The goal of this effort will be a warhead capable of penetrating 1-in.
Appropriate warhead design, high rate performance, and manufacturability will all be demonstrated as part of this work. Fabricate test coupons and conduct high strain rate materials characterization to determine the rate dependent stress strain response of materials followed by metallurgical characterization. The requirement calls for the delivery of at least two 2 samples to the US Army for independent characterization.
The processing technology will be scaled up to be able to fabricate 25 identical shaped charges for each material geometric details will be provided for the successful design. This will be followed by a thorough metallurgical characterization and high strain rate evaluation of these materials. Finally, prototypes will be fabricated from the most promising concept, loaded and tested. For weaponization, further optimization will be required in tactical configurations. To further exploit the benefits of the developed technology, form partnerships with other manufacturers for applications to the private sector such as the oil well and construction industries in which shaped charges are used to break, crack, or drill holes in rocks.
This technology can also be leveraged for mining applications as well as applications in submarine blasting, breaking log jams, breaking ice jams, initiating avalanches, timber or tree cutting, the perforation of arctic sea-ice or permafrost, glacier blasting, ice breaking, and underwater demolition.
Proceedings from the 18th International Ballistics Symposium. These rounds are fired at proving grounds and training ranges in the United States and around the world. In addition, special forces conduct day and night training exercises utilizing these training rounds. These rounds include low velocity 40mm grenades; 60mm, 81mm, and mm mortars; shoulder launched munitions; mm tank rounds; and mm artillery rounds.
The projectiles, and in some circumstances the cartridge cases and sabot petals, are either left on the ground surface or several feet underground at the proving ground or tactical range. Components of current training rounds require hundreds of years or more to biodegrade. Further, civilians e. Proving grounds and battle grounds have no clear way of finding and eliminating these training projectiles, cartridge cases and sabot petals, especially those that are buried several feet in the ground. Some of these rounds might have the potential corrode and pollute the soil and nearby water.
The solution sought by this topic is naturally occurring biodegradable material to replace the current training round materials, eliminating environmental hazards. This SBIR will prove out the technology and replace current training round components with biodegradable parts. The biodegradable materials identified can be utilized by private industry to manufacture biodegradable water bottles, plastic containers, or any other composite or plastic product s on the market today. This SBIR effort will make use of seeds to grow environmentally friendly plants that remove soil contaminants and consume the biodegradable components developed under this project.
Animals should be able to consume the plants without any ill effects. These Training rounds shall meet all the performance requirements of existing training rounds. The contractor should also explore avenues to produce biodegradable composites with remediation seeds for use in products outside the defense sector. Provide a sufficient number of prototypes for the government to perform ballistic tests. Sahari, J.
Sci 30, no. Reddy, Narendra. Ochi, Shinji. Mathew, Aji P. The precision delivery of the non-kinetic effects NKE electronics payload close to the target allows low power operation which limits the geographical extent of impacted systems, and reduces the overall impact on the electromagnetic spectrum.
The initial design will fit in a mm projectile, with a transition path for size reduction to allow incorporation of multiple NKE submunitions per projectile. Integrate the NKE system into an appropriate munitions platform. Explore, implement and demonstrate advanced non-kinetic attack techniques. Develop test methods and evaluate the system performance in the field. Develop a commercialization plan to transition the electronics subsystems to industry and relevant users. Private Sector Commercialization Potentials: The final NKE electronics system will support a number of commercial communications protocols.
The ruggedized, hardened electronics subsystem may be transitioned to a wide variety of industrial and civil applications that call for operation in extremely harsh environments. Carlucci, R. Pellen, J. Pritchard, W. Demassi,October ," U. Salim, MIT, June While the energy density of SCs is better than that of conventional capacitors, it is still an order of magnitude lower than that of battery technology. While there has been continuous improvement in the electrode materials to increase the energy and power densities, room exists for optimization of the electrolyte to achieve energy densities closer to the theoretical limits [1, ].
Also, recent research suggests that by using nanomaterials the capacitance, power and energy densities can be ehnanced . Electrolytes play a crucial role in determining the operational temperatures because ionic conductivity at low temperatures and flammability at high temperatures are the limiting issues. Thus, developing safer electrolytes that perform over a wide temperature range is a critical need. In this regard, deep eutectic solvents DESs appear as potential low cost alternatives to ionic liquids as electrolytes [7, 8].
Low-temperature ionic conductivity must not affected significantly while increasing the operational temperature. Design approaches would include varying the eutectic compositions to achieve liquid phase over the operational temperature range and low viscous solvents to enhance the ionic conductivities, particularly at low temperatures. Parameters such as ionic conductivity, viscosity, and electrochemical stability will be the variables to consider in the design space.
Experimental verification of the optimum design of the electrolyte will be demonstrated.